Why does fertility go down with age?
There are several biological factors that come into play.
To start, a woman is born with all the eggs that she will ever have. As you age, so do your eggs. A forty-year-old woman will have forty-year-old eggs. This may mean that they don't fertilize as easily as before.
Also, as eggs age they are more prone to abnormal division or fertilization (i.e., high risk of genetic abnormalities). Fortunately, most of these abnormal fertilized eggs will spontaneously abort. However, this translates into increased miscarriage rates and therefore reduced fertility. The uterus may also change in a way that makes it more difficult for a fertilized egg to implant.
As women age, hormone levels change. This can lead to irregular ovulation and it may become difficult to time intercourse appropriately.
Finally a good solution to preserve fertility is by egg freezing or oocyte vitrification. The success rate of freezing is 85% and the clinical pregnancy rate is 45%, comparable to fresh eggs.
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