October 25, 2014
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ

Smoking

 Health Home >> Smoking >> Related conditions 

On the Road to Quitting

On the Road to Quitting

The On the Road to Quitting program was created to help build your motivation and self-confidence to quit smoking.
more

Transient Ischemic Attack

(TIA, Mini-stroke)

The Facts on Transient Ischemic Attack

A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is an ischemic stroke in which the blood flow is restored quickly and the symptoms disappear within 24 hours. In other words, it's a mini-stroke that you recover from quickly. For most patients with a TIA, the symptoms last less than one hour. The longer the symptoms last, the more likely that there will be permanent brain tissue injury.

TIAs affect 1 in 15 persons over age 65 years, but often go undiagnosed if the symptoms are not recognized. Approximately 15% of strokes are preceded by a warning TIA. Therefore, recognition of TIA symptoms is important because preventative treatment may help to reduce the chance of an impending stroke.

The risk of stroke is highest within the first 3 months following a TIA, especially within the first few days. Within the first month, the average risk of stroke after a TIA ranges from 1 in 20 to 1 in 10. TIAs and strokes generally occur in people with atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) or coronary artery disease. In fact, people who have suffered TIAs are even more likely to die of heart attack than of stroke.

Are you at risk for a stroke?

Every 10 minutes on average, a Canadian has a stroke. Could you be next? There are many things that increase your risk of a stroke (called stroke risk factors).


Stroke risk factors

 1  2  3

PREVIOUS PREVIOUS NEXT NEXT

Some people may have other risk factors for stroke. Talk to your doctor to find out if you're at risk of a stroke, and what you can do to reduce your risk.


To find out your risk of a stroke in the next 10 years, use the stroke risk assessment calculator.

Other resources about stroke risk reduction:



Causes of Transient Ischemic Attack

A TIA is caused by the same factors that cause ischemic stroke. Ischemia is the medical term for a reduction of blood and oxygen to the cells.

Ischemic stroke occurs when the arteries feeding the brain become blocked. This may result from narrowing (stenosis) of the arteries, which disturbs blood flow, creating areas of turbulence that can lead to blood clot (thrombus) formation. Such a clot may occur in a brain-feeding artery, or it may occur elsewhere in the body, travel up to the brain, and lodge in a narrowed section of a brain artery.

A free-floating particle in the blood is called an embolus, and a free-drifting clot is called a thromboembolism. Local and travelling blood clots are the leading causes of stroke and TIA. The most common sources of brain emboli that cause stroke are the carotid arteries in the neck and the heart.

The risk factors for TIA are exactly the same as those for stroke:

  • High blood pressure is the number one risk factor. Even people with borderline high blood pressure have a higher TIA or stroke risk than people with normal blood pressure. Higher pressures mean increased risk. Even a small (6 mm Hg) reduction in diastolic blood pressure leads to a 42% reduction in the risk of stroke.
  • Smoking is the number two risk factor in most strokes. Tobacco consumption of up to a pack a day may double your risk. Beyond a pack a day, the figure increases further. Quitting smoking reduces stroke risk - over 5 years, the risk falls to the same level as that of people who have never smoked.
  • Heart disease and arrhythmias are often due to risk factors, but some are congenital (present from birth). The type of arrhythmia known as atrial fibrillation is closely associated with stroke. Most people with atrial fibrillation are treated with blood thinners to prevent this complication.
  • Heavy alcohol use is a modifiable risk factor. Reducing how much alcohol you consume in a day to the maximum recommended amount can reduce your risk for developing a TIA or stroke.

There are other risk factors that aren't preventable:

  • age naturally increases the risk of stroke and TIAs
  • diabetes increases the risk of cardiovascular (heart- and blood vessel-related) and cerebrovascular (brain-related) events - controlling blood sugar levels may also reduce the risk




Symptoms and Complications of Transient Ischemic Attack

The symptoms of a TIA vary depending on which arteries are obstructed. The most common location of blockage is in the carotid artery system. The two carotid arteries supply blood to the two sides of the brain. If one of them is blocked, there may be symptoms in the eye on the side of the blocked arteries, or symptoms affecting the opposite side of the body.

A blockage in the left carotid artery, for example, could cause temporary blindness in the left eye or paralysis of the right side of the face and the right arm and leg, or a loss of speech (inability to speak normally or understand speech).

Instead of complete blindness, many people suffer blurring or dimming of vision like a shade or veil slowly descending across their field of vision (the medical term for this is amaurosis fugax).

Another common location of blockages is the vertebrobasilar system. These strokes and TIAs can sometimes cause symptoms on both sides of the body or in both eyes. The balance control centre of the brain may be affected, causing symptoms of vertigo, dizziness, imbalance, and poor coordination, as well as double vision and slurred speech.

TIAs may come alone or in a series. Some people get several in a year, and a few get them daily. The more TIAs you get, the more likely you are to suffer a full-scale stroke.

The symptoms of TIA are identical to the symptoms of stroke, for the very good reason that a TIA is a stroke. When it happens, there's no way of knowing if the blockage will dissolve quickly (meaning a TIA) or stay in place long enough to cause cell death (meaning a stroke). According to statistics, it's far more likely to be a real stroke. Rush to the hospital (not the doctor's office) immediately - every minute of delay is risky. Even if you are having a TIA, you need immediate treatment, for a large stroke may follow within hours. Never attempt to drive yourself, because there's a major risk of sudden blindness, paralysis, or blackout.

Continued... 1 | 2 | Next

Ad

The contents of this site are for informational purposes only and are meant to be discussed with your physician or other qualified health care professional before being acted on. Never disregard any advice given to you by your doctor or other qualified health care professional. Always seek the advice of a physician or other licensed health care professional regarding any questions you have about your medical condition(s) and treatment(s). This site is not a substitute for medical advice.

© 1996 - 2014 MediResource Inc. - MediResource reaches millions of Canadians each year.