Osteoarthritis (OA) is a joint disease that causes the cartilage to break down and bone to overgrow or form cysts. Cartilage is a smooth, shiny material that lines the joints - allowing them to glide easily as you move. It is a type of resilient connective tissue that covers and protects the ends of bones in joints. Although OA can affect any joint in the body, it most frequently affects the hips, knees, hands, feet, and spine.
Arthritis is among the leading causes of disability in Canada. OA is the most common form of arthritis. It affects 1 out of every 10 people in this country. Statistics show that men and women are affected in equal numbers. OA usually occurs after the age of 45, but it can occur earlier in life, and even be seen in the spines of teenagers. After menopause, women tend to get more severe and complicated problems.
Risk factors for developing OA include:
There's no cure for OA, although research is beginning to unravel the mechanisms of the disease, which should lead to new treatments. Treatments currently focus on managing pain, reducing the load on the joints, and improving the strength of the muscles supporting the joints. Experimental therapies try to slow the progression of the disease and increase the mobility and flexibility of the joints.
As you move or put pressure on a joint, cartilage allows bones to slide over one another and acts as a shock absorber. Cartilage itself does not have any nerve cells and therefore cannot sense pain. OA results when the cartilage becomes worn out, allowing the bones underneath to rub against each other and cause pain and swelling. It is not simple wear-and-tear but a process involving the cells and proteins of bone and cartilage.
As the condition progresses, the joint may become disfigured and small growths called osteophytes begin to grow inside the joints. Osteophytes are small, irregular, bony growths that are also called bone spurs. Bits of broken-off cartilage or bone are also found floating inside the joint. This causes even more pain, swelling, and immobility of the joint.
The exact cause of these changes is unknown. Scientists believe that the following factors play a role:
The following are symptoms of osteoarthritis (OA):
Weight-bearing joints such as hips, knees, and feet are more prone to OA. It is important to note that many people have OA but don't experience any symptoms. The symptoms of OA can be made worse by overusing the joints.